author = {E. Beck and C. Bockelmann and A. Dekorsy},
  year = {2021},
  month = {Feb},
  title = {ConCrete MAP: Learning a Probabilistic Relaxation of Discrete Variables for Soft Estimation with Low Complexity},
  abstract={Following the great success of Machine Learning (ML), especially Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in many research domains in 2010s, several learning-based approaches were proposed for detection in large inverse linear problems, e.g., massive MIMO systems. The main motivation behind is that the complexity of Maximum A-Posteriori (MAP) detection grows exponentially with system dimensions. Instead of using DNNs, essentially being a black-box in its most basic form, we take a slightly different approach and introduce a probabilistic Continuous relaxation of disCrete variables to MAP detection. Enabling close approximation and continuous optimization, we derive an iterative detection algorithm: ConCrete MAP Detection (CMD). Furthermore, by extending CMD to the idea of deep unfolding, we allow for (online) optimization of a small number of parameters to different working points while limiting complexity. In contrast to recent DNN-based approaches, we select the optimization criterion and output of CMD based on information theory and are thus able to learn approximate probabilities of the individual optimal detector. This is crucial for soft decoding in today's communication systems. Numerical simulation results in MIMO systems reveal CMD to feature a promising performance complexity trade-off compared to SotA. Notably, we demonstrate CMD's soft outputs to be reliable for decoders.},
  journal={submitted for publication}