author = {T. Monsees and O. Griebel and M. Herrmann and D. W\"{u}bben and A. Dekorsy and N. Wehn},
  year = {2022},
  month = {Oct},
  title = {Minimum-Integer Computation Finite Alphabet Message Passing Decoder: From Theory to Decoder Implementations towards 1 Tb/s},
  volume = {24},
  number = {10},
  publisher = {MDPI},
  pages = {19},
  URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/24/10/1452},
  abstract={In Message Passing (MP) decoding of Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, extrinsic information is exchanged between Check Node (CNs) and Variable Node (VNs). In a practical implementation, this information exchange is limited by quantization using only a small number of bits. In recent investigations, a novel class of Finite Alphabet Message Passing (FA-MP) decoders are designed to maximize the Mutual Information (MI) using only a small number of bits per message (e.g., 3 or 4 bits) with a communication performance close to high-precision Belief Propagation (BP) decoding. In contrast to the conventional BP decoder, operations are given as discrete-input discrete-output mappings which can be described by multidimensional LUT (mLUTs). A common approach to avoid exponential increases in the size of mLUTs with the node degree is given by the sequential LUT (sLUT) design approach, i.e., by using a sequence of two-dimensional Lookup-Table (LUTs) for the design, leading to a slight performance degradation. Recently, approaches such as Reconstruction-Computation-Quantization (RCQ) and Mutual Information-Maximizing Quantized Belief Propagation (MIM-QBP) have been proposed to avoid the complexity drawback of using mLUTs by using pre-designed functions that require calculations over a computational domain. It has been shown that these calculations are able to represent the mLUT mapping exactly by executing computations with infinite precision over real numbers. Based on the framework of MIM-QBP and RCQ, the Minimum-Integer Computation (MIC) decoder design generates low-bit integer computations that are derived from the Log-Likelihood Ratio (LLR) separation property of the information maximizing quantizer to replace the mLUT mappings either exactly or approximately. We derive a novel criterion for the bit resolution that is required to represent the mLUT mappings exactly. Furthermore, we show that our MIC decoder has exactly the communication performance of the corresponding mLUT decoder, but with much lower implementation complexity. We also perform an objective comparison between the state-of-the-art Min-Sum (MS) and the FA-MP decoder implementations for throughput towards 1 Tb/s in a state-of-the-art 28 nm Fully-Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FD-SOI) technology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our new MIC decoder implementation outperforms previous FA-MP decoders and MS decoders in terms of reduced routing complexity, area efficiency and energy efficiency.},